New and existing challenges in the field of Bioanalytical Sensors require not only the expertise of a diverse group of investigators from a broad range of disciplines, but also opportunities for researchers to engage with each other and gain perspective about possible pathways to address such challenges, and those on the horizon. Crucial to successful development and routine use of sensing and detection strategies in the biological realm is realization that these desired outcomes require integration of knowledge from the end user, those in the development pipeline, and the ultimate recipient of the sensing/detection outcomes. The application of existing and non-traditional materials and their synthesis/fabrication, and use of theory and computational and optimization methods, enable a holistic synergic approach to be adopted that ensures the contributions of all participants are appropriately valued. The 2018 Conference headlines these requirements by targeting measurement science and engineering challenges that focus on food and water safety, point-of-use healthcare, creation and delivery of safe therapeutic agents, forensics, visualization of living systems, and creative “outside-of-the-box” approaches to sensing and making measurements—all with an eye to what the future holds in this burgeoning area of basic and applied research. Specific areas to be addressed encompass the future measurement challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare system it serves, the challenges that women face in science and engineering, clinically relevant sensing avenues, unique imaging agents and methods, underutilized materials and their integration with user-friendly practices, inexpensive electronic technologies, and information-rich sensing and measurement paths whose potential is just being recognized.